- 1 About State
- 2 About Citizen
Nagaland is a state in Northeast India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Burma to the east, and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur. Nagaland is a mountainous state in northeast India, bordering Myanmar. It’s home to diverse indigenous tribes, with festivals and markets celebrating the different tribes’ culture. Its capital city of Kohima suffered heavy fighting in World War II, commemorated by memorials at the Kohima War Cemetery.
The ancient history of the Nagas is unclear. Tribes migrated at different times, each settling in the northeastern part of present India and establishing their respective sovereign mountain terrains and village-states. In 1944, the Indian National Army with the help of Japanese Army, led by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, invading through Burma, attempted to free India through Kohima. Historically, Naga tribes celebrated two main rituals. These were feasting and head hunting.
Nagaland is largely a mountainous state. The Naga Hills rise from the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam to about 2,000 feet (610 m) and rise further to the southeast, as high as 6,000 feet (1,800 m). Mount Saramati at an elevation of 12,601.70 feet (3,841.00 m) is the state’s highest peak. The evergreen tropical and the sub tropical forests are found in strategic pockets in the state.
The governor is the constitutional head of state, representative of the President of India. He possesses largely ceremonial responsibilities apart from law and order responsibilities. The Legislative Assembly of Nagaland (Vidhan Sabha) is the real executive and legislative body of the state. The 60-member Vidhan Sabha – all elected members of legislature – forms the government executive and is led by the Chief minister.
Dimapur is the largest city in Nagaland, Kiphire, Kohima, Longleng, Mokokchung, Mon, Phek, Tuensang, Wokha, and Zunheboto are some major districts of Nagaland.
The 16 main tribes of Nagaland are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Dimasa Kachari, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Kuki, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yimchunger, and Zeliang. The Angamis, Aos, Konyaks, Lothas, and Sumis are the largest Naga tribes; there are several smaller tribes as well (see List of Naga tribes).
Most of the state’s population, about 68 percent, depends on rural cultivation. The main crops are rice, millet, maize, and pulses. Cash crops, like sugarcane and potato, are also grown in some parts. Plantation crops such as premium coffee, cardamom, and tea are grown in hilly areas in small quantities with a large growth potential. Most people cultivate rice as it is the main staple diet of the people. About 80% of the cropped area is dedicated to rice. Oilseeds is another, higher income crop gaining ground in Nagaland.
Nagaland has a high literacy rate of 80.1 percent. The majority of the population in the state speaks English, which is the official language of the state. The state offers technical and medical education. Nagaland schools are run by the state and central government or by a private organization. Instruction is mainly in English — the official language of Nagaland. Under the 10+2+3 plan, after passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the grade 12 examination), students may enroll in general or professional degree programs.
Tribe and clan traditions and loyalties play an important part in the life of Nagas. Weaving is a traditional art handed down through generations in Nagaland. Each of the tribe has unique designs and colors, producing shawls, shoulder bags, decorative spears, table mats, wood carvings, and bamboo works. Among many tribes, the design of the shawl denotes the social status of the wearer. Folk songs and dances are essential ingredients of the traditional Naga culture. The oral tradition is kept alive through folk tales and songs. Naga folks songs are both romantic and historical, with songs narrating entire stories of famous ancestors and incidents.
Tourism experts contend that the state’s uniqueness and strategic location in northeast India give Nagaland an advantage in tapping into the tourism sector for economic growth. After a gap of almost 20 years, Nagaland state Chief Minister, T. R. Zeliang launched the resumption of oil exploration in Changpang and Tsori areas, under Wokha district in July 2014. The exploration will be carried out by the Metropolitan Oil & Gas Pvt. Ltd. Zeliang has alleged failures and disputed payments made to the state made by previous explorer, the state owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC).