- 1 About State
- 2 About Citizen
The eastern-most region of India is called North East India. North East India comprises of seven states commonly known as the “Seven Sisters”. They are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura. The Himalyan state Sikkim is also represented as one of the North-East state. The North East is a true frontier region. It has over 2000 km of border with Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh and is connected to the rest of India by a narrow 20 km wide corridor of land. One of the most ethically and linguistically diverse regions in Asia, each state has its distinct cultures and traditions.India’s North East has been the meeting point of many communities, faiths and cultures.
In the early historical period (most of first millennium), Kamarupa straddled most of present-day Northeast India, besides Bhutan and Sylhet in Bangladesh. Xuanzang, a travelling Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Kamarupa in the 7th century. He described the people as “short in stature and black-looking”, whose speech differed a little from mid-India and who were of simple but violent disposition. During the British Rule over india, the North East states are established in the early’s of 19th and 20th centuries. At that time these states became relatively isolated from traditional trading partners such as Bhutan and Myanmar.Most of the peoples in present-day Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland converted to Christianity under the influence of British (Welsh) missionaries.History of North East states goes back to hundreds of years into mists of tradition and myth.North East India was made a part of Bengal Province from 1839 to 1873, when Assam became its own province. After Indian Independence from British Rule in 1947, the Northeastern region of British India consisted of Assam and the princely states of Manipur and Tripura. Subsequently, Nagaland in 1963, Meghalaya in 1972, Arunachal Pradesh in 1975 (Capital changed to Itanagar) (formed on 20 February 1987) and Mizoram in 1987 were formed out of the large territory of Assam. Manipur and Tripura remained as Union Territories of India between 1956 until 1972, when they attained fully-fledged statehood. Sikkim was integrated as the eighth North Eastern Council state in 2002.
The Northeast region can be physiographically categorised into the Eastern Himalaya, the Patkai and the Brahmaputra and the Barak valley plains. Northeast India (at the confluence of Indo-Malayan, Indo-Chinese, and Indian biogeographical realms) has a predominantly humid sub-tropical climate with hot, humid summers, severe monsoons, and mild winters.North -East region is covered with Brahmaputra-Barak river systems and thier tributaries system. This region are estimated to constitute a fifth of India’s total potential. North-East region is also known for its heavy rainfall conditions whish creates problems of ecosystem, high seismic activity, and floods.Geographically, apart from the Brahmaputra, Barak and Imphal valleys and some flat lands in between the hills of Meghalaya and Tripura, the remaining two-thirds of the area is hilly terrain interspersed with valleys and plains; the altitude varies from almost sea-level to over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft) above MSL.
The North East states alloted 25 out of a total of 543 seats in the Lok Sabha. India’s North East, with diverse socio-cultural communities, is often not taken into consideration when the region is categorised as one homogenous administrative, political and geographical entity. The national parties have failed to represent the particular needs and aspirations of the people of the region, regional political parties have been formed with ethnic considerations. Ethnic dimension, therefore, has been one of the most important components of regionalism in India’s North-East as almost all regional outfits stand for preservation of ethnic identity of one ethnic community or the other. People’s Party of Arunachal, Federal Party of Manipur and Manipur Peoples, Mizo National Front, Sikkim Sangram Parishad, Naga Peoples party are the major piolitical parties of North East States of India.The northeast India states are officially recognised under the North Eastern Council.
Itanagar the capital of Arunachal Pradesh, Dispur the capital of Assam, Imphal the capital of Manipur, Shillong the capital of Meghalaya, Aizawl the capital of Mizoram, Kohima the capital of Nagaland, Gangtok the capital of Sikkim and Agartala he capital of Tripura are the major cities of North East states of India. Guwahati, Agartala, Dimapur, Silchar, Dibrugarh, Jorhat, Nagaon, Tinsukia, Dhubri, Tezpur are also important cities of North East.
India’s North East has been the meeting point of many communities, faiths and cultures. The festivals and celebrations in the North- eastern states of India are a colourful reflection of the people and their lives. The people of the North-East live a very simple life, all the various tribes and cultures still live in accordance to the environment, and nature plays a very big role in their survival. Around 60 – 70 percent of the population is predominantly tribal,
The economy is agrarian. Little land is available for settled agriculture. Along with settled agriculture, jhum (slash-and-burn) cultivation is still practised by a few indigenous groups of people. The inaccessible terrain and internal disturbances has made rapid industrialisation difficult in the region. Tourism is the main part of economy in north east states. Northeast India appears to have a better scope for development in the era of globalisation. As a result, a new policy developed among intellectuals and politicians that one direction the Northeastern region must be looking to as a new way of development lies with political integration with the rest of India and economic integration with the rest of Asia, with East and Southeast Asia in particular, as the policy of economic integration with the rest of India did not yield much dividends.
During the period 1991-97, the north-eastern states have shown a significant improvement in the literacy rates (7+ and 15+ population). Mizoram recorded the highest literacy (95 per cent) followed by Nagaland (84 per cent), Meghalaya (77 per cent), Manipur (76 per cent), Assam (75 per cent) and Tripura (73 per cent). The literacy rate (7+) was the lowest in the state of Arunachal Pradesh (60 per cent). The rural/urban differential was lowest in Mizoram (5 per cent) as against the highest 23 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh. Percentage of habitations and rural population having access to primary and upper primary schooling facilities within a distance of 1 & 3 km. are the basic indicators of access.The financial indicators are positive in case of north-eastern states than at the national level.
The peoples of North East carry a lot of resemblance to many Tibeto-Burman, Mongolian and Austro-Asiatic cultures. Christianity and Hinduism are the other dominant beliefs. A trip to North-East remains incomplete if one doesn’t witnesses these many distinct tribes.Northeast India has over 220 ethnic groups and equal number of dialects. The hills states in the region like Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland are predominantly inhabited by tribal people with a degree of diversity even within the tribal groups. The region’s population results from ancient and continuous flows of migrations from Tibet, Indo-Gangetic India, the Himalayas, present Bangladesh and Myanmar. Northeast India constitutes a single linguistic region with about 220 languages in multiple language families.
With 98 percent of its borders with China, Myanmar, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Nepal, Northeast India appears to have a better scope for development in the era of globalisation. New policies are developed among intellectuals and politicians that one direction the Northeastern region must be looking to as a new way of development lies with political integration with the rest of India and economic integration. ndia is now looking towards a partnership with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN countries, both within BIMSTEC and the India-ASEAN Summit dialogue as integrally linked to economic and security interests, particularly for India’s East and North East region. There are differences among the eight States in the North Eastern region with respect to their resource endowments, level of industrialisation as well as infrastructural facilities. The industrial sector has mainly grown around tea, petroleum (crude), natural gas etc. in Assam and mining, saw mills and steel fabrication units in other parts of the region. The full potential of the region is yet to be exploited and this has left the economy in a primarily agrarian state. Steps of development in infrastructure is making North East states better performer to produce employment in this region.